Elsie MacGill: Pioneering the Skies as Canada’s Queen of the Hurricanes

Elsie MacGill Queen of the hurricanes

MacGill is considered a Canadian war hero. A biographical comic book was published in January 1942, dedicated to her efforts. Image courtesy Library and Archives Canada. Photo courtesy of ECE at Michigan.

Throughout the history of aviation, some individuals are remembered not only for their technical achievements but also for their groundbreaking actions in the face of societal norms. Elsie MacGill is one such figure. She significantly contributed to engineering and challenged gender stereotypes in a male-dominated field. This article delves into the life and achievements of Elsie MacGill, who earned the nickname Queen of the Hurricanes.

Early Life and Education

Elsie Gregory MacGill was born on March 27, 1905, in Vancouver, British Columbia, at a time when societal norms placed severe limitations on women’s aspirations. Her father, a prominent engineer, instilled in her a love for aviation and engineering from an early age. This parental influence would shape her destiny.

Elsie embarked on her educational journey at the University of Toronto, where she pursued a degree in electrical engineering. In 1927, she became the first woman in Canada to earn an electrical engineering degree, an impressive achievement considering the gender biases at the time. Her academic excellence was a testament to her determination and passion for engineering.

The Birth of the Queen of the Hurricanes

After completing her degree, Elsie went on to complete her master’s degree in aeronautical engineering at the University of Michigan, setting yet another milestone. Upon her return to Canada, she took up a position at Fairchild Aircraft Ltd., marking the start of a remarkable career in the aviation industry.

It was at Fairchild Aircraft that Elsie made her most significant contributions. Her expertise and innovative thinking played a pivotal role in the design and production of the Fairchild Cornell, a training aircraft used by the Royal Canadian Air Force during World War II. However, her most iconic achievement was yet to come.

Elsie Macgill

The Hurricane Queen

The demand for fighter planes was insatiable as the Second World War raged. The Royal Air Force (RAF) in Britain required an aircraft that could stand up to the formidable German Luftwaffe. The answer was the British Hawker Hurricane, a reliable and agile aircraft. However, Canada faced a major challenge; the nation needed more manufacturing capacity to meet the demand for Hurricanes.

This is where Elsie MacGill stepped in. She was appointed as the chief aeronautical engineer at Canadian Car and Foundry (CC&F) in 1938, making her the first woman in the world to hold such a position. Her role was crucial in the production of the Hawker Hurricane in Canada. Under her leadership, the production of the Hurricane at CC&F took off. 

Elsie’s innovative solutions significantly improved the Hurricane’s performance. Her relentless efforts earned her the Queen of the Hurricanes. Her contributions to the war effort were immeasurable, and the Hurricane symbolized Canadian aviation excellence.

Breaking Gender Barriers

Elsie’s journey wasn’t just about engineering and aircraft production; it was a pioneering effort to challenge societal norms and gender biases. She faced significant hurdles as a woman in a male-dominated profession. Despite the challenges, she persevered and continued to pave the way for future generations of women in engineering.

She was not only an engineer but also a tireless advocate for women’s rights in the workplace. Her contributions to the aviation industry went beyond technical expertise; they were a testament to the potential of women in fields traditionally reserved for men.

Post-War Contributions

Elsie MacGill continued her contributions to Canadian aviation and engineering after the war. She played a crucial role in developing guidelines for aircraft construction and safety standards. She also became the first woman to serve on the board of Transport Canada, further solidifying her position as a trailblazer in the industry.

Legacy and Honours

Elsie’s legacy lives on, not just in her engineering achievements but in the doors she opened for future generations. She inspired countless women to pursue careers in engineering and aviation. Her enduring impact is celebrated in various ways:

  • In 2009, a Canadian Heritage Minute was dedicated to Elsie MacGill, recognizing her remarkable contributions to Canada’s aviation history.
  • In 2018, she was inducted into Canada’s Aviation Hall of Fame, cementing her place as a pioneering figure in the nation’s aviation history.


Elsie MacGill’s life and career are an inspiring testament to the power of determination and passion in adversity. Her legacy reaches beyond engineering and aviation; it’s a beacon for those who dare to challenge gender biases and break through barriers. As Canada’s “Queen of the Hurricanes,” Elsie MacGill’s pioneering spirit continues to inspire generations of engineers and advocates for gender equality in the workplace. She was a pioneer in aviation and a trailblazer for women in engineering, a true icon in Canadian history.

commemorative loonie

Victoria-based artist Claire Watson designs commemorative loonie honouring trail-blazing female engineer. The design was selected from among several submitted by female artists across Canada. The design also underwent a thorough vetting with engineers, historians and MacGill’s family members to ensure accuracy, according to Deneen Perrin, a spokesperson with the Royal Canadian Mint.

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